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classic works, though those conventions were not necessarily
false for the artists who originated them. The omission of the
pudendal hair, in representations of the nude was, for instance,
quite natural for the people of countries still under Oriental
influence are accustomed to remove the hair from the body. If,
however, under quite different conditions, we perpetuate that
artistic convention to-day, we put ourselves into a perverse
relation to nature. There is ample evidence of this. "There is
one convention so ancient, so necessary, so universal," writes
Mr. Frederic Harrison (_Nineteenth Century and After_, Aug.,
1907), "that its deliberate defiance to-day may arouse the bile
of the least squeamish of men and should make women withdraw at
once." If boys and girls were brought up at their mother's knees
in familiarity with pictures of beautiful and natural nakedness,
it would be impossible for anyone to write such silly and
shameful words as these.
There can be no doubt that among ourselves the simple and direct
attitude of the child towards nakedness is so early crushed out
of him that intelligent education is necessary in order that he
may be enabled to discern what is and what is not obscene. To the
plough-boy and the country servant-girl all nakedness, including
that of Greek statuary, is alike shameful or lustful. "I have a
picture of women like that," said a countryman with a grin, as he
pointed to a photograph of one of Tintoret's most beautiful
groups, "smoking cigarettes." And the mass of people in most
northern countries have still passed little beyond this stage of
discernment; in ability to distinguish between the beautiful and
the obscene they are still on the level of the plough-boy and the
 These manifestations have been dealt with in the study of Autoerotism
in vol. i of the present _Studies_. It may be added that the sexual life
of the child has been exhaustively investigated by Moll, _Das Sexualleben
des Kindes_, 1909.
 This genital efflorescence in the sexual glands and breasts at birth
or in early infancy has been discussed in a Paris thesis, by Camille
Renouf (_La Crise Genital et les Manifestations Connexes chez le Foetus et
le Nouveau-ne_, 1905); he is unable to offer a satisfactory explanation of
 Amelineau, _La Morale des Egyptiens_, p. 64.
 "The Social Evil in Philadelphia," _Arena_, March, 1896.
 Moll, _Kontraere Sexualempfindung_, third edition, p. 592.
 This powerlessness of the law and the police is well recognized by
lawyers familiar with the matter. Thus F. Werthauer (_Sittlichkeitsdelikte
der Grosstadt_, 1907) insists throughout on the importance of parents and
teachers imparting to children from their early years a progressively
increasing knowledge of sexual matters.
 "Parents must be taught how to impart information," remarks E.L.
Keyes ("Education upon Sexual Matters," _New York Medical Journal_, Feb.
10, 1906), "and this teaching of the parent should begin when he is
himself a child."
 Moll (op. cit., p. 224) argues well how impossible it is to preserve
children from sights and influence connected with the sexual life.
 Girls are not even prepared, in many cases, for the appearance of the
pubic hair. This unexpected growth of hair frequently causes young girls
much secret worry, and often they carefully cut it off.
 G.S. Hall, _Adolescence_, vol. i, p. 511. Many years ago, in 1875,
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