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Table of contents
PREFACE
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.1
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.2
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.3
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.4
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.5
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.1
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.2
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.3
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.4
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.5
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.6
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.7
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.8
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.9
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.10
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.11
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.1
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.2
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.3
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.4
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.1
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.2
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.3
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.4
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.1
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.2
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.3
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.4
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.5
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.6
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.1
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.2
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.3
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.4
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.5
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.6
PROSTITUTION-7.1
PROSTITUTION-7.2
PROSTITUTION-7.3
PROSTITUTION-7.4
PROSTITUTION-7.5
PROSTITUTION-7.6
PROSTITUTION-7.7
PROSTITUTION-7.8
PROSTITUTION-7.9
PROSTITUTION-7.10
PROSTITUTION-7.11
PROSTITUTION-7.12
PROSTITUTION-7.13
PROSTITUTION-7.14
PROSTITUTION-7.15
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2

Maria Theresa at Vienna in the middle of the eighteenth century. Although 

of such recent date it may be mentioned here because it was mediaeval alike 

in its conception and methods. Its object indeed, was to suppress not only 

prostitution, but fornication generally, and the means adopted were fines, 

imprisonment, whipping and torture. The supposed causes of fornication 

were also dealt with severely; short dresses were prohibited; billiard 

rooms and cafes were inspected; no waitresses were allowed, and when 

discovered, a waitress was liable to be handcuffed and carried off by the 

police. The Chastity Commission, under which these measures were 

rigorously carried out, was, apparently, established in 1751 and was 

quietly abolished by the Emperor Joseph II, in the early years of his 

reign. It was the general opinion that this severe legislation was really 

ineffective, and that it caused much more serious evils than it 

cured.[149] It is certain in any case that, for a long time past, 

illegitimacy has been more prevalent in Vienna than in any other great 

European capital. 

 

Yet the attitude towards prostitutes was always mixed and inconsistent at 

different places or different times, or even at the same time and place. 

Dufour has aptly compared their position to that of the mediaeval Jews; 

they were continually persecuted, ecclesiastically, civilly, and socially, 

yet all classes were glad to have recourse to them and it was impossible 

to do without them. In some countries, including England in the fourteenth 

century, a special costume was imposed on prostitutes as a mark of 

infamy.[150] Yet in many respects no infamy whatever attached to 

prostitution. High placed officials could claim payment of their expenses 

incurred in visiting prostitutes when traveling on public business. 

Prostitution sometimes played an official part in festivities and 

receptions accorded by great cities to royal guests, and the brothel might 

form an important part of the city's hospitality. When the Emperor 

Sigismund came to Ulm in 1434 the streets were illuminated at such times 

as he or his suite desired to visit the common brothel. Brothels under 

municipal protection are found in the thirteenth century in Augsburg, in 

Vienna, in Hamburg.[151] In France the best known _abbayes_ of prostitutes 

were those of Toulouse and Montpellier.[152] Durkheim is of opinion that 

in the early middle ages, before this period, free love and marriage were 

less severely differentiated. It was the rise of the middle class, he 

considers, anxious to protect their wives and daughters, which led to a 

regulated and publicly recognized attempt to direct debauchery into a 

separate channel, brought under control.[153] These brothels constituted a 

kind of public service, the directors of them being regarded almost as 

public officials, bound to keep a certain number of prostitutes, to charge 

according to a fixed tariff, and not to receive into their houses girls 

belonging to the neighborhood. The institutions of this kind lasted for 

three centuries. It was, in part, perhaps, the impetus of the new 

Protestant movement, but mainly the terrible devastation produced by the 

introduction of syphilis from America at the end of the fifteenth century 

which, as Burckhardt and others have pointed out, led to the decline of 

the mediaeval brothels.[154] 

 

The superior modern prostitute, the "courtesan" who had no connection with 

the brothel, seems to have been the outcome of the Renaissance and made 

her appearance in Italy at the end of the fifteenth century. "Courtesan" 

or "cortegiana" meant a lady following the court, and the term began at 


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